Introduction of the Lithium-ion battery(one)

Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries that main rely on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes.

During the charging and discharging process, Li+ is intercalated and de-embedded between the two electrodes. During charging, Li+ is de-embedded from the positive electrodes, and the negative electrodes are embedded into the negative electrodes through electrolytes, which are rich in lithium. When discharging, the opposite is true.

Lithium-ion batteries with voltage ranges from 2.8V to 4.2V, typical voltage of 3.7V, below 2.8V or above 4.2V are at risk of damage.

Concepts of Lithium Ion Batteries 1C and 0.1C

The unit of battery capacity is mAh, C refers to the ratio of battery charge to discharge, such as a 2000 mAh battery, 1C refers to the discharge current of 2000 mA, 0.1C refers to 200 mA, and the same is true for charging.

Why can’t battery foil production capacity keep up with demand growth?

Existing players: slow production line construction and production

The new production line has a long cycle, and the supply of imported and domestic equipment is tight. If imported equipment is used to build a new battery foil production line, it will take 2-3 years to purchase the equipment, including 14 months for equipment production, 3 months for shipping and customs, 7-8 months for installation and commissioning, and manual labor after the equipment enters the site. Training requires additional time. If domestic equipment is used to build a new battery foil production line, the equipment purchase and installation cycle can be shortened to about 20 months (equipment production 14 months + commissioning and installation 6 months), but the accuracy of domestic equipment and imported equipment has a certain gap. The production speed and yield rate have a significant impact. Strict accuracy requirements and long production ramp-up cycle. The battery foil needs to be smooth on both sides, 13μm battery foil corresponds to 6μm double zero foil rolling accuracy, 10μm battery foil corresponds to 5μm double zero foil rolling accuracy, 4-5μm is already the thinnest thickness of double zero foil, and personnel training after the production line is completed It will take half a year to a year for production capacity to ramp up

New entrants: strict technical requirements, four factors lead to low cost-effective intervention

Compared with the traditional aluminum foil, the battery foil’s requirements on the pattern and accuracy are greatly improved, and the certification is difficult. The battery foil has requirements for tensile strength, elongation strength, pinhole, trimming, burr, convexity, etc. The leading companies in the industry have more than 10 years of production experience and R&D accumulation. It takes at least 1-2 years for new entrants to try and send samples to customers. Considering the uncertainty of subsequent customer expansion and certification, new entrants have a higher risk of intervention. The certification and volume cycle for downstream customers is too long. From sending samples to making batteries, and then to batch testing, it takes three months for one run-in stage, and the total time for two sample supply
more than half a year. If it is exported to overseas battery manufacturers, the sample supply cycle is longer, and the ramp-up time of production capacity can even be extended to two years. The scale threshold is significant, and the leading first-mover advantage is obvious. The battery foil is in a hard state, and the traditional aluminum foil is in a soft state. The production process is significantly different from that of ordinary aluminum foil. The lubricants and additives need to be replaced, and the production line needs to be prepared independently. An aluminum foil production line in the industry has an annual production capacity of about 0.8-10,000 tons. It is usually matched by three production lines of rough rolling, intermediate rolling and finishing. Each rolling mill is priced at about 50 million yuan. Expensive. In the industry, only Dingsheng New Materials and North China Aluminum, which have a large scale of aluminum foil production, have sufficient equipment reserves. Due to the small number of rolling mill layouts in other aluminum processing plants, it is difficult to find spare capacity for battery foil R&D and production. Currently passed
The traditional consumption aluminum foil industry is also booming in production and sales, and the price has entered a rapid upward cycle. If the production and consumption of foil is cut into battery foil, the corresponding opportunity cost is unbearable. The yield rate is low, and there is a phenomenon of increasing revenue without increasing profits. Battery foil is an emerging product. The new entrants cut into the battery foil as the main conventional product models, and the processing fee is 16,000-17,000 yuan / ton. With rich experience in double-zero foil production, the yield of battery foils for new entrants is still lower than 50%-60%. In contrast, the domestic double-zero foil production process is very mature, mainly concentrated in the high-end field, the processing fee is 10,000-14,000 yuan / ton, and the yield rate is between 85% and 88%. Comprehensive processing fee and yield rate, the profitability of new entrants battery foil is lower than that of traditional consumer aluminum foil

How to find the right battery for my laptop, 4 steps.

How can I find my battery’s part number?

1 、Make sure the laptop is unplugged and turned off, and that the battery has cooled.
2、Flip the laptop upside down. Push the battery latch to the left “unlock” position. While holding the latch in this position, slide the battery out of the computer.
3、Look for the serial number that is printed on the label on the back of the battery. The serial number will be a combination of some letters and numbers that more conspicuous.
4、For you convenience, please refer to the pictures below to see an example for a A32-K93 part number:

How to Find the Model of My Laptop ?

1、Open the laptop and check the area near the keyboard first. Manufacturers commonly print the computer model (such as Aspire 4736G for a Acer computer) on or near the keyboard.

Please note : High capacity batteries with the bigger size shape, and them will extend out about 1 inch from the bottom / side of the laptop.


Analysis of the market space and development trend of the battery industry in 2022 The head effect of the battery industry is significant

Battery industry space: consumer demand is still increasing, and the industry head effect is significant
Traditional consumer electronics shipments slow, emerging markets provide major increments

The consumer electronics market is vast, and the overall shipments of lithium batteries are growing rapidly. According to GGII data, the CAGR of global lithium battery shipments from 2016 to 2020 reached 28%, of which global consumer lithium battery shipments in 2020 will be 131GWh, a year-on-year +48%; China’s lithium battery shipments in 2020 will be 143GWh, of which consumer lithium battery shipments will be 143GWh. Shipment volume was 46.8Gwh, a year-on-year increase of 28.2%. According to GGII’s forecast, China’s lithium battery market shipments will reach 611GWh in 2025, with a compound growth rate of more than 25% from 2021 to 2025.

Traditional consumer electronics: shipment growth slowed down. According to a TrendForce survey, global notebook computer shipments in 2021 will increase by 19.4% year-on-year, reaching a record high, due to the impact of the epidemic on the hybrid office. However, this growth trend may not be sustainable. In 2022, global notebook PC shipments are expected to decrease by 5% year-on-year, and tablet PC shipments will also slow down significantly, excluding the impact of the epidemic. In addition, after years of development, the smartphone market in East Asia, Europe, North America and other regions has become relatively mature. According to IDC data, from 2016 to 2021, the growth rate of smartphone shipments will be in the range of -6% to 5%. According to the 2021 global mobile phone market report released by the Pew Research Center in the United States, the penetration rate of smartphones in the United States has reached 82.2%; the United Kingdom, Germany, France, South Korea, Italy and other countries have reached more than 75%, and the penetration rate of mobile phones in China is 66%. , only a few emerging economies are still at a low level. As the penetration rate of smartphones continues to increase, it is expected that the growth of smartphone market sales will stagnate or even decline, and the smartphone industry will enter the era of stock replacement.

The advantages of consumer soft packs are obvious, and the proportion of shipments has increased rapidly

In terms of consumer batteries: In 2021, the global shipments of notebook soft packs will account for 95.3%. The downstream applications of soft pack batteries mainly include consumption, power and energy storage. Soft pack batteries are favored by consumer lithium batteries due to their high safety, high energy density, high flexibility, and low cost. According to Techno System Research, the proportion of global mobile phone soft pack battery shipments will increase from 54% in 2015 to 89.7% in 2021; the global s notebook computer soft pack battery shipments will increase from 35.8% in 2015 to 95.3% in 2021 .

75.2%/77%/78.2%/78.5%, the trend of thin and light notebooks has become the consensus of mainstream notebook manufacturers; in terms of demand, portability has become one of the primary considerations for consumers to buy notebook computers, and traditional cylindrical 18650 batteries are gradually becoming It is replaced by soft bags with light weight and large capacity, so we predict that the penetration rate of soft bags will increase to 96.2%/97.2%/98.2%/99.2% in 2022-2025, respectively. Limited by the thickness requirements, the tablet battery has been dominated by soft-pack batteries since its launch. It is expected that the share will remain stable in the future, with a penetration rate of 99.7%/99.8%/99.9%/99.9% in 2022-2025, respectively.


With capacity improvement taking into account volume optimization, the share of mobile phone soft cases is expected to increase to 95% in 2025. Driven by Andy-Beer’s Law, software performance improvement promotes hardware upgrades. The average value of a single unit of soft-package single-cell battery used by manufacturers has increased from 33.8 yuan/unit in 2018 to 45.8 yuan/unit in 2021; The penetration rate of 5G mobile phones has increased from 0.71% in August 2019 to 75.9% in 2021. Due to frequent network switching, high screen refresh rate, increased 5G network components, and increased chip power consumption, the battery capacity of mobile phones faces a larger capacity increase Require. Under the trend of thin and light smartphones, soft-pack batteries have become the choice for capacity improvement and volume optimization. It is expected that the penetration rate is expected to reach 93.4% in 2025.

There is still room for improvement in the penetration rate of soft pack batteries in emerging consumer electronics. In recent years, soft-pack batteries have been gradually applied to emerging consumer electronics fields such as wearable devices, electronic cigarettes, drones, and wireless Bluetooth speakers, but the penetration rate still has a lot of room for improvement compared to the traditional consumer battery field. For emerging consumer electronics such as wearable devices, the advantages of soft pack batteries such as lightness and large capacity still exist. Therefore, it is expected that soft pack batteries will also become mainstream batteries for emerging consumer electronics in the future.

The global consumer soft bag space is expected to grow, and the market size is expected to reach 480.2 billion yuan in 2025. According to our estimates, the global demand for consumer soft packs in 2021-2025 will be 73.2/81.2/91.0/98.2/105.4GWh, and the CAGR will reach 7.6% in 2021-2025; the market size will be 2,979/3,344/3,606/3,962/440.7 billion respectively yuan, with a CAGR of 8.1%. Among them, it is expected that the demand for soft pack batteries for notebooks, tablets, mobile phones, and other consumer electronics (wearable devices, AR/VR, drones, Bluetooth headsets, etc.) will reach 15.4/5.5/21.9/62.6 GWh, respectively, in 2025. The space will reach 1128.4/294.6/509.8/247.5 billion yuan respectively, and the main increase in the market will come from emerging consumer electronic products.

In terms of power batteries: in 2021, the installed capacity of domestic power soft pack batteries is 10.3GWh, and the penetration rate is only 7%. From the perspective of the installed capacity, the penetration rate of domestic soft pack batteries in 2021 is only 7%, which is far behind the 42% penetration rate of foreign soft pack batteries. , Ford, Daimler, etc. have a high degree of recognition of soft-pack batteries, benefiting from large subsidies and the launch of new models. In 2020, 15 of the best-selling TOP20 new energy passenger cars in Europe are equipped with soft-pack batteries; on the other hand, Ningde is currently equipped with soft-pack batteries. The three leading companies, Times, BYD, and China Innovation Airlines, account for more than 70% of the installed capacity. They are mainly square batteries, which squeeze the market share of domestic soft pack batteries.

Entering the overseas soft pack battery supply system, the penetration rate is expected to continue to increase. The soft-pack battery has a complex process, high production technology requirements, and an imperfect domestic supply chain, resulting in high production costs. The penetration rate of soft-pack batteries in the domestic market is still at a low level. At present, Funeng Technology has established close cooperation with GAC, Brilliance, Geely and other OEMs in China to consolidate its share. At the same time, it has signed a 170GWh supply contract with Daimler in Europe from 2021 to 2027, and the cooperation with Volkswagen is progressing smoothly; Yiwei Lithium Energy It has entered the soft package supply system such as Hyundai Kia. In the future, with the overseas volume of domestic top power soft pack companies, the penetration rate of soft pack batteries is expected to continue to increase.

All-solid-state batteries have high energy density and the strongest safety, and are expected to open up the growth space for soft packs. All-solid-state batteries use solid electrolytes such as polymers, oxides or sulfides to replace separators and electrolytes to fundamentally solve battery safety problems; the energy density of battery cells is expected to increase to 400-500Wh/kg. Since there is no need to use liquid, the shell and assembly process of solid-state batteries are simplified, and the soft-pack packaging technology suitable for solid-state battery packaging is expected to open up new growth space for the development of soft-pack batteries. European and American companies prefer oxide and polymer systems, while Japanese and Korean companies are more committed to solving sulfide systems. At present, all-solid-state batteries are still in the research and development stage, and new car manufacturers are more accepted. Traditional car companies participate in three different routes: acquisition, cooperation and self-research.



Which laptops have the lengthiest battery life of them all?

Whether you own a powerhouse gaming notebook or a super-light Ultrabook, your laptop doesn’t amount to a hill of beans if it doesn’t offer good battery life. The idea behind the notebook PC is that it should let you work and play on the go, but if you constantly have to plug it in to juice it up, that defeats the purpose of owning such a portable device in the first place.

Battery life is one of the biggest factors that determine whether a laptop should be sought after or set aside by consumers. With that in mind, we put together this rundown of the laptops with the best battery life out there.

How we test battery life

We measure laptop battery life using the Peacekeeper Web browsing benchmark, which leans heavily on JavaScript. JavaScript is a commonly used programming language that’s found in content strewn about all over the Internet, making Peacekeeper a solid way to evaluate laptop endurance. We also tune down every display’s brightness to about 100 lux. Most people don’t keep their monitors and laptops at full luminosity, so to us, 100 lux sounds about right as far as typical user settings go.

Without further delay, here are the notebooks with the best battery life.

Which laptops have the best battery life?

5. HP Slatebook 14

The HP Slatebook 14 is a unique resident on this list, because it’s the only one that doesn’t run Windows. It’s not a Chromebook either.

The Slatebook 14 is actually an Android-powered laptop, which we don’t see often. While we’re not fans of Android when it’s housed in a traditional computing form factor, we do have to give credit where credit is due.

HP SlatebookThe Slatebook 14 handily outperformed many of our Windows-based review units in the battery life department to the tune of six hours and 52 minutes in Peacekeeper.

On top of that, when we reviewed it, it cost a measly $430. That includes a 1080p display, along with a solid keyboard, and a black/yellow exterior that reminds us of Batman’s costume.

Since then, HP has slashed the price to $400, as of this writing.

4. Lenovo ThinkPad X240

This isn’t the only ThinkPad on the list, which is a testament to the fact that Lenovo’s line of business notebooks are built to endure the rigors of a typical workday.

The Lenovo ThinkPad X240 lasted seven hours and 33 minutes (with help from an extended battery) in our Peacekeeper benchmark, but it brings much more to the table than endurance alone.

Lenovo Thinkpad X240 angled openFor instance, its luminous IPS display makes it easy to see stuff on screen, and the system is well built also. On top of that, it features a large wrist rest and touchpad, along with an excellent keyboard. The latter item is something the ThinkPad series has been famous for.

Good thing the X240 is sturdy too, because its warranty only lasts for one year, while competing models offered more when we reviewed this laptop.

3. Dell XPS 13

Though the Dell XPS 13 doesn’t come close to offering the best battery life that today’s laptops have to offer, it boasts a complete package of features and components that are so solid, it earned a Digital Trends Editors’ Choice award from us.

For starters, the system’s body is attractive, and well built, consisting of a carbon fiber shell reinforced by silver accents. Plus, it’s easy to carry around, weighing only three pounds.

Dell XPS 13 Ultrabook frontIn our Peacekeeper Web browsing test, the Dell XPS 13 lasted seven hours and 48 minutes. That’s an excellent score, especially considering that it packs a 1080p resolution display.

The XPS 13 is available in multiple configurations. The $1,200 model includes an Intel Core i5 processor, 8GB of RAM, and a 128GB SSD. That should be more than enough to handle just about any workload you throw at it.

2. Acer TravelMate P645

The Acer TravelMate P645 is thin, easy to carry around, offers a plethora of ports, and also one of the longest-lasting laptops that have come through our offices.

TravelMate-P645The P645 took eight hours and two minutes to take a nap while running our Peacekeeper test. What’s more, it doesn’t conserve battery life by skimping on its internals and wielding low-power Atom hardware. The P645 we tested was loaded with an Intel Core i7 CPU, which got excellent SiSoft Sandra and 7-Zip processor benchmark scores.

1. Lenovo ThinkPad T440s

If you want a laptop that might be a descendent of the Energizer Bunny, go for the Lenovo ThinkPad T440s.

This unit, with an extended battery, lasts a whopping 14 hours and 32 minutes on a single charge. That absolutely crushes everything we’ve tested in recent memory.

Lenovo T440s frontoffsetOn top of that, the T440s boasts a fantastic keyboard, though the touch-pad is problematic. Our review unit packed a solid slate of specs, including an Intel Core i5 processor, 8GB of RAM, and a 128GB SSD. That should be more than enough to get you through the workday, whether you’re multitasking from nine to five, or laboring by the moonlight.

Google Chrome Has Been Draining Laptop Batteries for Years

If you’re running Windows 7 or earlier on a laptop and you use Google Chrome as your Web browser, your battery is being unnecessarily drained.

With Windows 8 and later, the problem no longer exists, and thanks to a recent report in Forbes, Google itself has finally committed to fixing the issue, which it has known about for six years.

The reason Chrome has been killing battery life and slowing down laptop performance is that it forces the Windows system clock tick rate to 1 millisecond, where the default is 15.625ms. This is the frequency at which the processor responds to requests from programs. Internet Explorer, by contrast, only increases the tick rate if the browser is engaged in constant activity such as streaming video. Chrome ups the rate even if it’s just showing a blank page.

The bug has been elevated to priority 1 on the Chromium project site, indicating that its resolution is a requirement before the next version of the browser can be released to the public. Windows 8 users aren’t affected by the issue, because that newer operating system, like Mac OS X and Linux, dispenses with the clock tick strategy, instead allowing the CPU to run at a low-power mode until called upon.

The Chrome bug tracking site points to a Microsoft Dev Center page that notes that setting the system clock tick rate to 1ms could reduce battery life by as much as 25 percent. Another Microsoft Dev Center page I found, however, states that “a single application that increases the platform timer resolution can decrease battery life by 10 percent.” Whichever number is correct, it’s a programming strategy that could mean the difference between your laptop lasting for the whole flight or not.

PCMag sister publication states that Google and Chrome aren’t alone in flouting the coding best practice of keeping the clock tick at the system default when a speedup isn’t needed. It’s also the case that the tick rate is sped up systemwide, not just for the offending app.

So if you run Windows and need your battery to last, you have a few options: (1) Use another browser such as Firefox or Internet Explorer (since Opera now shares all of Chrome’s underlying code, switching to that won’t help); (2) Upgrade to Windows 8.1; or (3) wait for the next version of Chrome to be released.

How to extend the life of your laptop battery

Batteries don’t last forever. Like everything except diamonds and viral tweets, they eventually wear out. But with proper care, a laptop battery can still carry a sufficient charge until you’re ready to move on to a better laptop.

But it’s a tradeoff. Taking the best care of your laptop battery just may be more of a hassle than it’s worth.

So let me start with a less effective, but more practical approach:

When you’re at home, running the laptop on AC power, and you believe that it will stay plugged in for a week or more, shut down the PC and remove the battery.

Then, when you need the battery, plug it back in. If it’s been more than two months since you last used the battery, check it and charge it before taking it on the road.

Of course, you should never remove or insert a laptop battery while the laptop is running. Always shut it down first.

That’s the practical approach. Here’s the extreme care method:

For the absolute best results, never charge it past 80 percent or let it drop below 20 percent. When you’re working on AC power, keep an eye on the battery’s charging.  When it hits or passes 80 percent, shut down your computer, remove the battery, then reboot. When it’s time to take the laptop on the road, shut it down again and reinsert the battery.

And when you’re using the laptop on battery power, shut it down before the battery drops below 20 percent, and don’t start it up again until you have AC power.

As I said, probably more of a hassle than it’s worth.

One more thing: The hotter the battery, the quicker it degrades. So keep your laptop cool.